1) What is a link?

A link is a connection between two devices. It includes cable types and protocols for one device to be able to communicate with another device.

2) What are the layers of the OSI reference model?

There are seven OSI layers: physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer and application layer.

3) What is the backbone network?

A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles bandwidth management and various channels.

4) What is a LAN?

LAN is an acronym for Local Area Network. It refers to the connection between a computer and other network devices located in a small physical location.

5) What is a node?

A node is the point at which a connection occurs. It can be a computer or device that is part of a network. To form a network connection, two or more nodes are required.

6) What is a router?

A router can connect two or more network segments. These are intelligent network devices that store information in their routing tables, such as paths, hop counts, etc. Armed with this information, they can determine the best path for data transfer. Routers operate at the OSI network layer.

7) What is a peer-to-peer link?

It refers to a direct connection between two computers on a network. A point-to-point connection does not require any other network equipment other than the NIC cards that connect the cable to the two computers.

8) What is anonymous FTP?

Anonymous FTP is a way of granting users access to files on a public server. Users who are allowed to access data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but log in as anonymous guests.

9) What is the subnet mask?

The subnet mask is combined with the IP address to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like IP addresses, subnet masks consist of 32 bits.

10) What is the maximum allowable length of UTP cable?

A single segment of UTP cable has an allowable length of 90 to 100 meters. This limitation can be overcome by using repeaters and switches

11) What is data encapsulation?

Data encapsulation is the process of breaking information into smaller manageable chunks before transmitting it over a network. During this process, the source and destination addresses are appended to the header along with parity.

12) Describe network topology

Network topology refers to the layout of a computer network. It shows the physical layout of devices and cables, and how they connect to each other.

13) What is VPN?

VPN means Virtual Private Network, a technology that allows the creation of a secure tunnel through a network such as the Internet.

For example, a VPN allows you to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.

14) Briefly describe NAT.

NAT is Network Address Translation. A protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a public network to share a single connection to the Internet.

15) What is the job of the network layer under the OSI reference model?

The network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching and network congestion control. Routers operate below this layer.

16) How does network topology affect your decision-making when building a network?

Network topology determines what medium must be used to interconnect devices. It also serves as the basis for suitable materials, connectors and terminations for the setup.

17) What is RIP?

RIP, short for Routing Information Protocol, is used by routers to send data from one network to another.

It efficiently manages routing data by broadcasting its routing table to all other routers in the network. It determines network distance in hops.

18) What are the different ways to protect computer networks?

There are several ways to do this. Install a reliable and updated antivirus program on all computers. Make sure the firewall is set up and configured correctly. User authentication will also help a lot. All these combinations will form a highly secure network.

19) What is a NIC?

NIC is an acronym for Network Interface Card (Network Card). This is connected to the PC to connect to the network Shenbei. Each NIC has its own MAC address that identifies a PC on the network.

20) What is a WAN?

WAN stands for Wide Area Network. It is the interconnection of geographically dispersed computers and devices. It connects networks located in different regions and countries.

21) What is the importance of the OSI physical layer?

The physical layer performs the conversion from data bits to electrical signals and vice versa. This is a consideration and setup for network equipment and cable types.

22) How many layers are there under TCP/IP?

There are four layers: network layer, internet layer, transport layer and application layer.

23) What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?

A proxy server primarily prevents external users from identifying the IP address of the internal network. Without knowing the correct IP address or even identifying the physical location of the network. A proxy server can make the network virtually invisible to outside users.

24) What is the function of the OSI session layer?

This layer provides protocols and methods for two devices on the network to communicate with each other by holding sessions. This includes setting up the session, managing the exchange of information during the session, and the disassociation process when the session is terminated.

25) What is the importance of implementing a fault-tolerant system? Is it limited?

The fault-tolerant system ensures continuous data availability. This is achieved by eliminating single points of failure. However, in some cases, this type of system will fail to protect data, such as accidental deletion.

26) What does 10Base-T mean?

10 refers to the data transfer rate, which in this case is 10Mbps. "Base" refers to baseband. T stands for twisted pair, which is the cable used for this network.

27) What is a private IP address?

A dedicated IP address is assigned for use on the intranet. These addresses are used on the internal network and cannot be routed on the external public network. These ensure that there are no conflicts between internal networks, and the range of private IP addresses can also be reused for multiple internal networks as they do not "see" each other.

28) What is NOS?

NOS or Network Operating System is specialized software whose main task is to provide a computer with a network connection so that it can communicate with other computers and connected devices.

29) What is DoS?

A DoS or Denial of Service attack is an attempt to prevent a user from accessing the Internet or any other network service. This attack may take different forms, consisting of a group of permanents. A common way to do this is to overload the system servers so that they can no longer handle legitimate traffic and will be forced to reset.

30) What is OSI and what role does it play in computer networking?

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) as a reference model for data communication. It consists of 7 layers, each of which defines a specific aspect of how network devices connect and communicate with each other. One layer handles the physical medium used, while the other layer dictates how the data is actually transferred over the network.

31) What is the purpose of the cable being shielded and having twisted pairs?

Its main purpose is to prevent crosstalk. Crosstalk is electromagnetic interference, or noise, that can affect data transmitted through a cable.

32) What are the advantages of address sharing?

Address sharing provides inherent security advantages by using address translation instead of routing. This is because hosts on the Internet only see the public IP address of the external interface on the computer that provides address translation, not the private IP address on the internal network.

33) What is a MAC address?

MAC, or Media Access Control, uniquely identifies devices on a network. It is also called physical address or ethernet address. The MAC address consists of 6 bytes.

34) What are the equivalent layers or layers of the TCP/IP application layer in terms of the OSI reference model?

The TCP/IP application layer actually has three peers on the OSI model: the session layer, the presentation layer, and the application layer.

35) How to identify the IP class of a given IP address?

By looking at the first octet of any given IP address, you can identify whether it is class A, class B, or class C. If the first octet begins with bit 0, the address is Class A. If it begins with bit 10, the address is a Class B address. If it starts at 110 then it is a class C network.

36) What is the main purpose of OSPF?

OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is a link-state routing protocol that uses a routing table to determine the best path for data exchange.

37) What is a firewall?

Firewalls are used to protect internal networks from external attacks. These external threats may be hackers who want to steal data or computer viruses that can wipe out data instantly. It also prevents other users from the external network from accessing the private network.

38) Describe a star topology

A star topology consists of a central hub connected to nodes. This is one of the easiest to set up and maintain.

39) What is a gateway?

A gateway provides connectivity between two or more network segments. It is usually the computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is the key to allowing different systems to communicate over the network.

40) What are the disadvantages of star topology?

A major disadvantage of a star topology is that once the central hub or switch is damaged, the entire network becomes unavailable.

41) What is SLIP?

SLIP or Serial Line Interface Protocol is actually an old protocol developed in the early days of UNIX. This is one of the protocols used for remote access.

42) Give some examples of private network addresses.

10.0.0.0, the subnet mask is 255.0.0.0

172.16.0.0, the subnet mask is 255.240.0.0

192.168.0.0, the sub The netmask is 255.255.0.0

43) What is tracert?

Tracert is a Windows utility that can be used to trace the route of data acquisition from a router to a destination network. It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transit routing.

44) What is the function of the network administrator?

A network administrator has many responsibilities that can be summarized into 3 key functions: installing the network, configuring the network settings, and maintaining/troubleshooting the network.

45) describes a disadvantage of peer-to-peer networks.

When you are accessing a resource shared by a workstation on the network, the performance of that workstation is reduced.

46) What is a hybrid network?

A hybrid network is a network setup that utilizes client-server and peer-to-peer architectures.

47) What is DHCP?

DHCP is an acronym for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Its main task is to automatically assign IP addresses to devices on the network. It first checks for the next available address not already occupied by any device, and then assigns it to the network device.

48) What is the main job of ARP?

The main task of ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is to map known IP addresses to MAC layer addresses.

49) What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP is an acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is a set of protocol layers designed to exchange data over different types of computer networks (also known as heterogeneous networks).

50) How to use the router to manage the network?

The router has a built-in console that allows you to configure different settings, such as security and data logging. You can assign restrictions to your computer, such as the resources you are allowed to access, or specific times of day when you can browse the Internet.

You can even impose restrictions on sites you can't see across the web.

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